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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 41, January 1913"

BULLETIN 9^ THE 

PENNSYLVAN I A 

■ MUSEUM ' 




MEMORIAL HALL 

FAIRMOUNT ■ PARK 

■ PHILADELPHIA- 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE PENNSYLVANIA 
MUSEUM AND- SCHOOL' OF INDUSTRIAL ART • 

SUBSCRIPTION ONE DOLLAR • A YEAR 

JANUARY, 1913 



ilered, Aueutt 27, 1903. at Philadelphia, Pa., as Second-Class Matter, nnder Act of Conetess of July 16. 1894 



P E N N S y L VA NIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



IBoarJ) of trustees 



The Governor of the State, Ex-Of. 



The Mayor of the City, Ex-Of. 



Charles Bond 
James Butterworth 
John G. Carruth 
Charles E. Dana 
Thomas Dolan 
Harrington Fitzgerald 
Charles H. Harding 



Mrs. John Harrison 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John Story Jenks 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
John T. Morris 
John W. Pepper 



Theodore C. Search 
Edgar V. Seeler 
G. Henry Stetson 
Edward T. Stotesbury 
Jones Wister 
William Wood 



©fficers 

THEODORE C. SEARCH, President 

JOHN STORY JENKS, 

JOHN G. CARRUTH, 

JAMES BUTTERWORTH, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Secretary 

LESLIE W. MILLER, Principal of the School 



Vice-Presiden ts 



i 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Editor 



Bulletin 



Jfor 3anuari? IRinetecn MunDreO anD Ubirtccn 
CONTENTS 

Two Old Spanish Carvings, by Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson . 
Textile Fabrics of the Incas, by Edwin A. Barber 
A"n Old French Clock, by Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 
Additions to the Ceramic Collections, by Edwin A. Barber 
Notes ........... 

List of Accessions ........ 

Membership. Publications, etc. ...... 



I'AGE 
I 



BULLETIN 

OF 

THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



JANUARY, 1913 ELEVENTH YEAR Number 41 

TWO OLD SPANISH CARVINGS 

A fine specimen of seventeenth centur}- Spanish wood sculpture, painted 
in polychrome and gilt on "gesso," spread over carved walnut, has been acquired 
recently by the Pennsylvania Museum. The group represents the Madonna 
and Child receiving the homage of the Magi. One of the latter is kneeling at 
her feet kissing the foot of the Holy Child ; one is standing by her side on her 
right, holding in his hands a golden cruet, and the outline of his form marks, 
to the right, the outline of the group. On the other side must have stood the 
third of the Magi whose figure, however, is entirely missing. The block of 
walnut here has been cut oiif short, leaving that end of the group unfinished, 
although it is coated with red color, quite unlike the base, which is delicately 
decorated in finest pol}'chrome and gilt design on "gesso." 

The specimen is said to be of the seventeenth century ; it may be earlier. 
It is two feet ten inches in height, by two feet in width in its present condition. 
The figures are half life size. But for the missing figure, it is well preserved : 
and the rich polychrome elaborated in gold, and the general treatment of the 
figures, are characteristic of the Spanish method of the time. 

In Gothic times, the practice was universal of painting and gilding sculp- 
tures of all kinds. Stone, wood, ivory, and even metal were colored in an 
effort at realism inherited from the older civilizations. The painter and 
sculptor, when not one and the same, worked together. The Flemish artist 
influenced his European confreres, and his treatment of this polychrome statu- 
ary and sculpture is more refined, more suggestive of the close understanding 
in which worked sculptor and painter. In the early JMiddle Ages, and to the 
end of the Gothic period, flesh was painted of one single tint and varnished. 
Walnut, cedar, cypress, pine and other resinous woods were used by the 
Spanish carver, notably the pine of Cuenga, which was highly esteemed for 
this purpose. Wood sculpture in Spain had already acquired a prominent 
position in the thirteenth century, though early pieces betray French influence. 
Among the earliest art influences that were felt in Spain was the Oriental, or 
Arab, that came through the jNIoorish invasion and the prolonged occupation 
of the territory by the Moors. The Choir Stalls of the thirteenth century 
preserved in the Madrid Museum are Arab in style. The latter period of Arab 
art is called the "Mudejar" or transition "Hispano-Mauresque" : the Christian 
work then being done b}' Moorish native artists who readil}' accommodated 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




SPANISH WOOD CARVING 
Seventeenth Century 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 3 

themselves to the Gothic style, the earlier Gothic of Spain is a combination of 
Arabesque, geometric curves, tracery in inlaid work, pendentive and st\listic 
foliage of an absolutely Oriental character. But in the fourteenth century 
came the invasion of French, Italian and Flemish artists whose traces may be 
observed in the great Spanish cathedrals. Then Italy equally with Flanders 
led in the art development, and to both is due the impulse that inaugurated 
the movement which sought inspiration directly from nature. The chief propa- 
gator in Europe was the Fleming. Nowhere was there such elaboration of 
ornament, such a masterly use of polychrome decoration, such a change in 
style from the rich sobriety of, for instance, the altar pieces of Dijon, as in the 
great Spanish retables of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

In the fifteenth century, Dello Delli, famous for his paintings in "gesso" 
style, is mentioned by Vasari as having entered the service of Juan II of 
Aragon. The "'gesso," or stucco, was spread over the wood carving and painted 
over, a process, by the way, that goes back to the time of the Egyptian pyramid- 
builders. Then came the direct influence from Burgundy and Flanders with 




SPANISH CARVED RAILING 
Sixteenth Century 



the marriage of Maximilian with Joan of .Spain ; and from Germany in the 
sixteenth century with Charles V, their son. under whose reign the names of 
foreign artists found in the Spanish archives, as well as the foreign taste dis- 
cernible on the great woodwork of the Spanish churches, are proof of their 
influence. 

Architects, and sculptors, painters, enamelers, imagineros, entalladores, 
estofadores, and innumerable artist-artisans, were employed in the handling 
of sculpture painting. The sculptured group of walnut or Cuenqa pinewood 
was covered with a coat of "gesso." On this modeled stucco-work the other 
specialists, gilders, painters, varnishers, even stuff-makers, plied their skill to 
achieve the realism in which the heart of the Spaniard so delighted. The great 
period of this art was that of Felipe de Borgoiia, of Alfonso Berruguete and of 



4 ■ BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

Vigaray, ;'. c, the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century the art became 
debased by an overpowering passion for realism, which did not scorn to clothe 
figures with painted stuffs and additions of metal work, real chains and cords, 
etc., in \vhich sculpture becomes secondary to its realistic accessories. Yet 
some wonderful examples survive of the seventeenth century, such as the 
painted JMater Dolorosa in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

In the sixteenth century Spanish taste reacted on Flemish work. Later, 
when the vandalism of the Reformation destroyed in the Netherlands much of 
the artistic magnificence of the great cathedrals and churches, Spain continued 
to use its rich decorative art. 

In time from these varied influences was evolved the ornate style known 
as "plateresco" because of its resemblance to silver work, a varied combination 
of Gothic and Renaissance with "Mudejar" forms. The impulse that two 
centuries later carried the rest of Europe into the exaggerations of the 
"baroque" and the "rococo," carried Spain still further into what the Spaniards 
themselves call "estilo monstruoso," a riotous extravagance which reached its 
height in the latter part of the seventeenth century under the architect 
Churriguera, and became known as "Churrigueresque," of which, strange as 
it may seem, Spain is proud. 



But the Flemish influence on many retables of Spain is clear. The doors 
in the Spitzer collection (1541) still show attachment to the Gothic taste 
lingering well into the Renaissance, and of these gracefully beautiful influ- 
ences, the delicate wood-lacework fragment of railing recently presented to 
the Pennsylvania Museum by Mrs. John Harrison shows a survival. This 
piece of caiwed lime-wood was purchased in Spain by the late Stanford White, 
and was in his possession at the time of his death. It seems to have formed 
part of the top-railing of some retable, altar screen, or of a choir decoration — 
most proljably the first — and is as beautiful and delicate a piece of sixteenth 
century wood carving as one is likely to see. The word "retable" properly 
means the framework of the altar piece '^^, often in three sections, the two end 
pieces folding over the central panel. These altar pieces are called in modern 
art nomenclature "triptychs," or when in more than three pieces, "polyptychs."' 

In primitive times the altar was simple and without ornament. The bishop 
sat behind it, so that it is clear that nothing intervened, neither reredos nor 
retable. The enclosure of the choir and stalls seems to have been approximately 
coeval (thirteenth century) with the appearance of great fixed altar pieces, and 
metal work seems to have been its forerunner. In the fourteenth century a 
tendency to exaggerate novel ideas in the accessories of church equipment 
prevailed. The earliest fixed construction corresponding with the later triptychs 
and polyptychs is the retable of soft limestone in the church of the Carriere St. 
Denis, Paris, a picture in stone forming a kind of screen and resting on the 
altar. Nowhere, then, was it a custom to make the altar a fixture resting 
against the east wall. There was a space between, and the early retable served 

(1) Havard, vol. IV., "Retable." 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 5 

to support and conceal a large reliquary over the ambulatory.*" A tabernacle 
on the altar itself has, at most, the authority of the last three centuries. As 
innovations succeeded each other, the retable became an adjunct on which 
much skill was lavished. It eventually took on architectural proportions, 
became a towering edifice, as in the cathedral of Seville, with canopied niches 
and statuary, pendentives, and marvelous traceries of all kinds soaring up to 
the top of the building, and which reached its highest development in Spain. 

Our present interest, however, is in the smaller variety of carved wood 
retable which formed a framework for pictorial woodwork or painting. Such 
usually consist of a triptych, or, as in our example, of a polyptych. Sometimes 
the wings are subdivided. The whole is more or less lavishly carved, some, 
as the fragmentary specimen that has found its way to the Pennsvlvania 
Museum, present the appearance of veritable lace-work of wood.'-^ 

The wood carving industry in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was 
so active that everywhere could be seen traceries of carved wood, often gilt 
and painted ; and even in domestic architecture it occupied a prominent place. 
All paneled work tended to assume an architectural type. Panels, bench ends, 
cofifers and chests were designed after the pattern of window tracery. Panels 
from French and other chests of this epoch are delicate and often very beauti- 
ful, armorial shields being added to the fine ogival decoration. Some such 
panels in oak wood, sixteen in number, and of the early seventeenth century 
at latest, may be seen in the Charles Godfrey Leland collection in the Penn- 
sylvania Museum. 

In the fifteenth century — Italian "quattrocento" — paint and gilding were 
much used. Thus we have seen in connection with the painted group of the 
Magi, that Dello Delli employed this technique on "gesso." He was so popular 
that no house of consecjuence seemed then complete without some specimens 
of this work in the form of furniture or decoration. The taste for the glorifi- 
cation of ecclesiastic furniture and decoration spread to the palaces and manor 
houses of France, England and Germany. Great stall work was done for these 
and the monasteries. Germany and Spain took up the Renaissance in a more 
Italian spirit than did England or France. Senor J. F. Riano says : ''The 
brilliant epoch of sculpture in wood belongs to the sixteenth century and was 
due to the great impulse received from Berreguete and Felipe de Borgona. 
The latter was the chief promoter of Italian art in Spain. The choir of the 
cathedral of Toledo where he worked so much is the finest example in Spain."' 
In France in the seventeenth century the art of wood carving was to a great 
extent replaced by marquetterie. The fine work of Boule, Le Brun and others 
drove it out from the stronghold of fashion. Not so in Spain, where it sur- 
vived, although in a degenerate form due to an inordinate popular love of the 
most repellant realism. 

(1) "Wood Sculpture," by Alfred Maskell. p. 63. Compare "South Kensington 
Museum Handbook," By John Hungerford Pollen, pp. 60-83. 

(2) "Wood Sculpture," by Alfred Maskell. p. 64, says : "As a rule Flemish retable 
works of the fifteenth century show evidence of the perfection of skill attained by 
the wood carver in the declining years of Gothic feeling, with as much sobriety as 
the then prevailing taste for exuberance of detail permitted." This is said in comparison 
with the highly florid and over-e.xuberant style of the German work, but will hold good 
of the Flemish work as it has influenced Spanish art. 



6 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

The date to be ascribed to the exquisite fragment of raiHiig now under 
consideration seems to be the second half of the sixteenth century. At least 
it seems to belong to the order of the Bachelier school of wood carving, of 
which the magnificent choir of the Cathedral of Auch in the Toulousain is the 
most superb exponent.*^) S. Y. S. 



TEXTILE FABRICS OF THE INCAS 

A small, but choice, collection of Peruvian textiles has been placed on 
exhibition in the Textile Room, consisting of woolen and cotton fabrics from 
Peruvian tombs. This collection was presented to the Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society of Philadelphia nearly thirty years ago by Dr. Jose Mariano 
Macedo, of Lima, and has now been deposited in the Museum for safekeeping. 

The Peruvian weavers, at the time of the Conquest, had reached an 
advanced state of perfection in their art. They manufactured the most beau- 
tiful fabrics of cotton and the wool of their domesticated animals, such as the 
llama and alpaca. From the finer wool of the vicuiias and huanacos, which 
roamed wild through the mountains, they made the finest cloth, which was 
worn only by the Incas or kings. This was profusely ornamented with colored 
designs woven into the fabric, representing birds, beasts and human beings. 
The garments of the wealthier classes were elaborately decorated with fringes 
and tassels, which sometimes represented human heads with long flowing- 
beards, or entire figures with elaborately woven accessories. 

The feather workers also produced the most exquisite fabrics from the 
beautifully colored plumage which was plucked from the gorgeous birds of the 
Peruvian forests. The feathers were usually attached to a solid ground of 
cloth, completely covering it and over-lapping each other like the scales of a 
fish, so that the delicate tips alone remained visible. The natural colors were 
cunningly worked into ornamental designs and intricate mosaics, to be worn 
by the members of the nobilit}-, or used as hangings in their houses. 

The group of tapestries now on exhibition consists of fragments of gar- 
ments, and includes a complete unco, a short armless shirt of cotton cloth with 
elaborate geometrical decoration woven in brown and white. The majority of 
the specimens are of wool, probably of the alpaca, with a warp of cotton, while 
some of the finer and more delicate pieces are composed entirely of the wool 
of the vicuna. One of the most striking peculiarities of these fabrics is the 
separation of the colored designs by vertical slits, which run with the warp, 
presenting a remarkable resemblance to some of the Coptic weaves of Egypt. 

In his interesting article on the "Textile Fabrics of Ancient Peru," Prof. 
William H. Holmes, of Washington, describes the ancient method of weaving, 
as follows : "The Peruvian workman stretched his series of warp threads side 
by side, usuallv twentv or thirty to the inch, between two holding rods, and 



I 



(1) Compare plate LI of Maskell's already quoted work on wood sculpture, giv- 
ing portions of the clioir. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLA/^ANIA MUSEUJNI 



7 



upon this warp as a foundation he began his fabrics. It seems that he did not 
begin as in ordinary weaving at one end of the piece, carrying the work uni- 
formly thread by thread to the other end, but worked more or less in patches, 
setting in independently one entire bit of color, 
carrying the yarn back and forth over that area 
and pressing it down until the web was entirely 
hidden and both sides of the work exhibited 
the same figure. Other patches of color were 
added to this until the desired pattern was 
developed. 

"As a result of the peculiar methods em- 
ployed some unusual effects were produced. 
The most notable feature is the open-work 
effect characteristic of these fabrics. Holding 
a piece up against the light, the figures appear 
partly outlined as transparencies, the effect 
being very pleasing." 

Selecting a few of the characteristic ex- 
amples from the collection, the first illustration 
shows a small strip of finely woven woolen 
cloth divided into square blocks, each one con- 
taining the figure of a man or monkey. The 
upper square is woven with a yellow ground, 
the figure being in deep red, dark brown, white 
and black. In the middle section is a highly 
conventionalized figure in dark brown, yellow, 
white and black on a light brown ground, 
while the lower square in coloring is almost 
similar to the upper one, with the addition of 
some light blue. 

A section of the border of a robe or gar- 
ment with deep fringe is shown in the next illus- 
tration. This also is woven of the finest wool 
and the colors are still fresh and bright. The 
human figures in the border, which are out- 
lined in black, have alternately yellow and red 
faces. 

One of the finest examples of the collection, 
illustrating in a marked degree the open-work 
effect, is a piece of cloth, a portion of which is 
shown in the next engraving. The design, while simple, is exceedingly effective, 
being composed of serrated lozenge-shaped figures, each one containing a con- 
ventionalized animal, in light brown on a )'ellow ground. The border below is 
woven in an angular bird design, so arranged that the pattern is the same 
when reversed, the birds being in yellow with a background of rich red. 

An entirely different style of fabric, made extensively in Peru, previous 
to the Spanish invasion, consists of a rather coarsely woven cotton cloth with 




FRAGMENT OF WOOLEN CLOTH 
Ancient Peruvian 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




FINE WOOLEN FABRIC 

Ancient Peruvian 




FINE WOOLEN FABRIC 

Showing Openwork Effect 

Ancient Peruvian 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 9 

designs which have been painted with the brush in fast colors. These fabrics 
were for the use of the poorer people. The decorations consist of figures of 
animals and geometrical patterns. One piece in the collection is painted with 
a series of figures of cats in various shades of brown on a pale brown field. 
The accompanying illustration shows a fragment of a larger piece, in which 
the decorations represent figures of monkeys and cats, separated by serrated 
squares. The monkeys are painted in brown camaieu on an orange field, while 
the cats are dark brown with white spots, on a ground of light brown. 




PAINTED COTTON FABRIC 
Ancient Peruvian 



Prof. Holmes states in his monograph that "the ancient peoples were 
exceedingly fond of fringes, and some of their tassled garments are marvels 
of elaboration. A large mantle now in my possession has a compound founda- 
tion fabric of patchwork and passementerie work, consisting upon the surface 
of separately woven rosettes, into which faces or geometric figures are worked, 
and upon which a multitude of tassels and clusters of tassels are fixed. The 
fringe consists of clusters of tassels, and is upward of 20 inches long. The 
head of each principal tassel represents rudely a human or animal head, the 
features being in relief and in color. There are upwards of three thousand 
tassels in all, and years must have been consumed in the execution of the 
garment." E. A. B. 



ns^ 



lO 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



AN OLD FRENCH CLOCK 

Among the interesting articles of authentic furniture of the Louis XA'I 
period purchased in 1912 by the Pennsylvania Museum, as forming part of 
the Lenox estate, was a handsome clock of the period, made by Cachard, who 




OLD FRENCH CLOCK 
Louis XVI Period 



succeeded Charles LeRo}-, clock-maker. Rue St. Denis No. 56. Paris, in 1765. 
The fact is attested by the inscription on the dial. 

The clock is very similar to one made by Engaz, Paris, reproduced by 
Britten in his invaluable work on "Old Clocks and Watches ■ and Their 
Makers."'" The Lenox specimen, however, does net give the dav of the week 
and the day of the month, as does the Britten clock on a dial signed Dubisson. 
The case, however, is almost identical, the main difference being that in the 
Leno.x specimen the decorative urns are on the sides and the floral motives on 

•1) P. 414. New York, diaries Scriliner's Sons. 1904. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM ii 

top of the supports, while in the Britten ilUistration the order is reversed. 
The body of the clock, like the plinth, is of white marble, black marble Corin- 
thian coUimns adorning the flat surface of the supports on either side of the 
face. Fine brass mountings and scroll applications of the same metal, besides 
brass floral designs, garlands, and ornaments add to the grace and beauty of 
the clock, which stands on small brass feet. 

The pendulum, a sun-burst, the surmounting eagle, and one of the applied 
brass scrolls were lost, but by rare good fortune, Mr. Chase, of Caldwell & 
Company, while in Paris last summer was able after a considerable search 
among the anticjuaries of old Paris, to secure original fac-similes of the missing 
parts, this pattern of clock obviously having been a popular one at the begin- 
ning of the reign of Louis XVI (1774). 

Major David Lenox obtained the clock along with the other articles of 
Louis XVI furniture inherited from him by his niece, Miss Sallie Lukens 
Keene, and now in the Museum, prior to the Revolution, according to a family 
tradition. The facts connected with the clock narrow down the date of its 
purchase and that of the furniture to between 1765 and 1777, as Cachard's 
name inscribed on the dial as "Successor to Charles LeRoy"' is known to have 
succeeded this distinguished clock-maker of the Rue St. Denis in 1765. On 
the other hand. Major Lenox was in this country in 1777, when he was elected 
a member of the First City Troop. As it is unlikely that the purchase was 
made at either extreme end of the above period, in round figures the clock may 
be dated about 1770-1775, that is, at the end of the reign of Louis XV or at the 
beginning of the reign of Louis XVI. 

For the history of the owner and his family, of their house and their 
furniture, the reader may be referred to the Bulletin of the Pexxsyl\'.\nl-v 
Museum for April, 1912. S. Y. S. 



ADDITIONS TO THE CERAMIC COLLECTIONS 

There have recently been added to the collection of pottery and porcelain 
some rare examples of English wares, including two pitchers with the so-called 
silver lustre decoration and transfer-printed designs colored by hand, which 
are of historical interest. One of them bears on one side a cartoon representing 
"John Bull and his Companion (the British Lion) challenging Bonaparte and 
his Relation (the Devil),'' w-ith long inscriptions issuing from the mouths of 
the figures. On the reverse is a print showing "One of the 71st taking a French 
Officer Prisoner in Portugal." This is one of the rarest of the Napoleonic 
ceramic cartoons. It is particularly interesting at this time, as it bears the date 
1813 and is therefore just one hundred years old. 

The other jug shows on one side the "Marc|s. of Wellington in the Field 
of Battle," while on the reverse is depicted "The Narrow Escape of Boney 
through a Window," the French general being represented as a Lilliputian 
who is being carried away on the back of a Brobdingnagian soldier. 

John Turner, of Lane End, StaiTordshire, a contemporary of Josiah Wedg- 
wood, was a close imitator of the great potter, and some of Turner's jasper 



12 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




STAFFORDSHIRE CREAMWARE JUGS 

Wellington and Napoleon Designs 

Silver Lustre and Colors, 1813 




CANE WARE BULB DISH 
By John Turner, Eighteenth Century 



i 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 13 




JASPER WARE 
By John Turner, Eighteenth Century 






■WINE AND WATER" VASES 
By Josiah Wecjgwood 



14 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

and cane-colored wares are of almost equal merit. Among the recent acces- 
sions is a large semi-circular bulb dish of cane-colored stoneware, bearing in 
front a finely modeled group of boys in bold relief. An exquisite little pot- 
pourri vase, of blue jasper with white reliefs of classical subjects, also bears 
the Turner mark. 

Two important pieces of Wedgwood's black basalte have been added to 
the Bloomfield Moore collection by purchase. They are what are known as 
the "Wine and Water Vases," which were modeled in 1775 by Flaxman. 
These vases stand 15J4 inches in height, the one for wine being surmounted 
by the figure of a Satyr which grasps the neck of the vessel with his arms and 
holds in his hands the horns of a ram, whose head is modeled on the front. 
Festoons of grapes adorn the sides, while the lower part of the vase is decorated 
with godroons. The water vase has a Triton handle, and in front a dolphin's 
head, with a festoon of water plants at each side. 

There have also been added to the Bloomfield Moore collection a fine 
example of Whieldon agate ware and a green glazed tea pot, a Leeds cream- 
ware tea pot with decoration of portrait heads in enamel colors, and two black 
glazed Jackfield tea pots, all of the eighteenth century. E. A. B. 



NOTES 

Cover Design — The cover design for this issue of the Bulletin was 
executed by Ernst F. Detterer, a pupil of the School. 

Hansom Cab — The hansom cab, which a few years ago was so popular 
in the larger cities of England and this country, is rapidly being supplanted 
by more modern forms of public vehicles, and will soon be a thing of the past. 
An example has recently been added to the collections of the \'ictoria and 
Albert Museum of London. A typical specimen has been purchased in London 
by Mr. John H. INIcFadden and presented by him to the Pennsylvania Museum. 
To the coming generations this will prove as great a curiosity as the Conestoga 
wagon or the high wheel bicycle. 

Walpole Society — The members of the Walpole Society, an organization 
composed of collectors of art objects from various parts of the country, which 
met in Philadelphia on November 30th. spent several hours inspecting the 
Museum collections. 

New Cases — Two new exhibition cases have been added to the ceramic 
room of the Bloomfield Moore collection, in which have been installed the fine 
collection of old Wedgwood and its contemporarv imitations, to which some 
important additions have recently been made. By this arrangement the over- 
crowded condition of some of the other cases has been relieved. 

Case Linings — The floor cases in the East Gallery containing the collec- 
tions of Lacquers, Enamels, Ceramics and Glass have been newly lined with 
light colored cloth, as the result of recent experiments in backgrounds. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 15 

School Notes — To partially fill the vacancies caused by the resignation 
of Mr. Barker and Mr. Alertz. Mr. Abbot McClure, a former pupil, and Miss 
Jane Driver, one of the members of last year's graduating class, have been 
engaged to assist in the work of the general and design classes. 

The prize of $20.00, offered by Miss Nina Lea for a poster, was awarded 
to Miss Helen J. Hulme, who also won the second prize in the "Keramic 
Studio" contest for decorative flower studies, Miss Jane Baker receiving the 
first. Miss Elizabeth Burt was given the second and third of the Thomas 
Meehan prizes for water color paintings of the mallow plant. Mr. W. H. 
Thompson and Mr. C. Schuler each received prizes offered by Mr. John T. 
Morris for an architectural subject. Mr. H. H. Battles has offered to the 
painting classes a prize of $25.00 for the best water color study of the new 
zinnia he is developing, and five additional $5.00 prizes for other studies, a 
prize of $15.00 for the best study of a new rose, and three additional $5.00 
prizes for other studies of it — ten prizes in all. Mr. Battles proposes to do 
this in relation to various new plants he is introducing. 

The Alumni Association held its annual meeting December loth. The 
reports of the officers all showed a great increase in the activities of every 
kind, membership, treasury receipts and strengthening of the organization in 
all ways. The Business Bureau received applications from outside, amounting 
to one hundred opportunities for employment, or to execute orders for art 
work. The problem is to meet these oft'ers with qualified students, as it is a 
temptation to the pupils to accept offers before they are properly prepared. 
The greatest demand is for teachers of drawing and manual training. Seven 
applications for such positions were received the first week in December. 

A scholarship for the study of industrial art in Italy, to be awarded to a 
graduate of the School in June, 1913, was presented by !\Ir. Charles Burnham 
Squier, being the third wbich will become available this season, the first two 
having been offered by Mrs. James Mifflin and Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott. 
Mr. Squier, who is particularly interested in Italy, felt that no greater advan- 
tage could be offered the student completing his required work here success- 
fully than seeing the best examples of what he is training to do in the country 
of the renaissance of art. 

The traveling exhibits have been again sent to graduates of the School, 
teaching in districts where good examples of art work are not readily seen, 
and have done splendid service. 

The annual exhibitions of the Association opened this season with a 
display of the pottery presented by Mrs. James Mifflin and Mr. John T. jMorris, 
the latter collection having been specially made for the School. The results 
in the experiments in stoneware made at the School during the summer were 
also shown and received much appreciative comment. At the annual meeting 
a large exhibition of sketches and photographs, made by Miss Sophie Bertha 
Steel, in England. -Spain, India, Java, China and Japan, was shown, giving 
the peculiar atmosphere of each country with great success and skill. 

The recent Historical Pageant Committee has presented to the Associa- 
tion, for use in the Saturday afternoon Sketch Class, twenty-nine complete 
costumes of various colonial characters, which, added to those already owned 
by the School, probably makes this collection the best in America. 



L 



It. BULLETIN OF THE PENXSYLVANLA. MUSEUM 

ACCESSIONS 
October — December, 1912 



CLASS 



OBJECT 



HOW ACQUIRED 



Antiquities 



Carvings 



Ceramics 



"Lent by Dr. Edwin A. Barber. 



Collection of Old Baskets, Wall Paper, Birth 

Certificates, etc. Added to the Frishmuth 

Antitiuarian Collection Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 

Collection of Ancient Peruvian Textiles, Bronze 

Implements. Musical Instruments, etc Lent by the Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society. 
Carved Wood Railing, Spanish Gothic, i6th 

Century Given by ilrs. John Harrison. 

Large Wood Carving, Madonna and Child and 2 

Magi, Spanish, 17th Century Bought — Annual ^lembership Fund. 

Black Basalte Medallion, Made by Wedgwood & 

Bentley, 1768 Given by Mr. Samuel P. Avery. 

6 Pieces of Flint Enameled Ware. Bennington, 

Vt., 1S49 

Covered Jar, Worcester, England, 1780 

Stoneware Jug, Buntzlau, Germany, i8th Cen- 
tury 

Stoneware Food Bottle, BoufHou.x. Belgium. 17th 
Century 

Pottery Vase, Painted Decoration, Cypriote.... Given by Mrs. George Boker. 

2 Brown Pottery Dishes, American Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 

Pottery Vase and Ewer, Painted Decoration, 
Made by Haviland & Company, Limoge.s. 
France, 1876 Given by Mrs. Annesley R. Govett. 

Pottery Tureen, Style of Thomas Whieldon, 

Staffordshire, England, c. 17S0 Given by Mrs. Emma B. Hodge. 

2 Salt Glazed Stoneware Vases, ^lade at the 

School of Industrial Art, Philadelphia Given by Mr. John T. Morris. 

Pottery Bulb Dish, Wedgwood Style, Made by 

John Turner, Staffordshire, England Given by Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts. 

Porcelain* Vase, Painted Decoration, Doulton,^ 

England. 1875 U ent by Mrs. Jones Wister. 

Large Porcelain Vase, Copenhagen, Denmark... J 

Green Glazed Pottery Teapot and Agate Ware-^ 
Cream Jug, Made by Thomas Whieldon. Fen- 
ton, England, c. 1770 

Black Basalte Wine and Water Vases, Made by 
Josiah Wedgwood, 17S5 

Jasper Ware Flower Vase, Made by John Tui- 
ner, Staffordshire, England, 1790 

Pottery Teapot with Dutch Figures and Inscrip- 
tion, Leeds, England, Late i8th Century 

Black Lustre Teapot and Cream Jug, Jackfield. 
Shropshire, England, Late i8th Century 

White Salt Glazed Stoneware Teapot, England, 
c. 1760 , 



^Bought — Bloomfield Moore Fund. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



17 



CLASS 



Furnitnr 
Glass 



Goldsmith's 
and 

Silversmith ; 
\\'ork 



Melalwork 



Musical 
Instrument? 



Textiles 



X'ehicles 



OBJECT 



HOW ACQUIRED 



^Uonght — Special Museum Fund. 



Pottery Pitcher, Colored Cartoons of Napoleon,"' 
Staffordshire, England, c. 1825 

Pottery Pitcher. Figures of Wellington and Na- 
poleon, Stafifordshire, England, 1813 

Pottery Figure of Lion, Staffordshire, England, 
c. 1825 

Pottery Toby Jug, Style of Thomas Whieldon, 

Staffordshire, England, c. 1800 

Pottery Plaque. Peacock Decoration, by Zsol- 
nay, Pecs, Hungary, 1879 

Large Circular Convex Mirror in Gilded Frame, 

American, 19th Century Given by Mr. William Day Rowland. 

f.arge White Glass Tumbler, Engraved Decora- 
tion, German Request of Mrs. Rebecca M. Allen. 

Dark Blue Glass Bottle, Persian. i8th Century.."] 

20 Pieces of Old Glass, Swiss and American >Lent by Dr. Edwin A. P.arber. 

1 5 Glass Paper Weights. American J 

Small Blue Glass Bucket, Made at the Wistar 

Glass Works, Near Salem, N. J., 1797 Lent by Mr. Richard W. Davids. 

Glass Cup Plate, Made at the Sandwich Glass 

Works, 1831 Given by Miss Alice Follansbee.* 

Glass Rose-Water Sprinkler, Persian. Early 19th 

Century Given by Mrs. John Harrison. 

Large White Glass Liquor Bottle with Cut Deco- 
rations, Spanish, 19th Century Given by Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts. 

5 Glass Bottles and i Tumbler. Decorated in 

Enamel Colors, Swiss, i8th Century Bought^Special Museum Fund. 

Silver Coffee Pot, Teapot, Cream Jug, Mug, and 

Tablespoon, American, Old Lent by Mr. Richard \V. Davids. 

Silver Communion Service, Consisting of Large 
Tankard, 4 Silver Cups and 4 Cup Stands, 

American, iSth Century Lent by the First Baptist Church of 

Philadelphia. 

14 Antique Watch Keys Lent by i\Ir, Moyer Fleisher. 

Small Silver Teaspoon, Made by S. Alexander, 

American, Old Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 

4 Open-Face Gold Watches, European, 19th Cen- 
tury Given by Mr. Edward I, H. Howell, 

Small Silver Cream Jug. Made by J. Bayly, 

Philadelphia, 1783 Bought — Special Museum Fund. 

Iron Stove Plate, Made by Baron Henry William 

Stiegel, Manheim, Pa., 1762-1774 Bought^ Special Museum Fund. 

Old Drum, Chinese Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 

Christening Robe, Brocaded Silk, Swiss Given by Mrs. George Boker. 

Collection of Old Galons and Laces Given by Mr. Samuel B. Dean. 

3 Peasant's Head-dresses, Austrian Tyrol Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 

Embroidered Scarf 1^. , ,, -. , , ^ 

_ .p . ■ , r- 1 - > I Given by Mrs. John Le Conte. 

Large 1 urkish Embroidery ) 

Piece of Retticella with Tambour Stitching, 

Denmark, c. 1775 Given by Mrs. John Markoe. 

8 Dolls Lent by Miss Mary E. Sinnott. 

Hansom Cab, English Given by Mr. John H. McFadden. 

Donkey Cart, Sicilian Lent by Mrs. Richard Wain Meirs. 



i8 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL/\ MUSEUM 



MEMBERSHIP 

The Trustees of the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art 
desire the active co-operation of all pub- 
lic-spirited citizens who are known to be 
in sympathy with its educational work. 
All such persons are invited to become 
members. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS 

Patrons — Those who contribute the 
sum of $5000 or more whether in money 
or objects for the Museum. 

Life Members — Those who contribute 
llie .-uni of $100 or more at one time. 

Annual Members — Those who contri- 
bute not less than $10 yearly. 

The contributions received from Pa- 
trons ($5000). and from Life Members 
($100), are added to the permanent En- 
dowment Fund. Contributions from An- 
nual Members {$10) are used to the best 
advantage in the development of the 
Museum and the School. 

ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP 

All members are entitled to the fol- 
lowing benelits: 

The right to vote and transact busi- 
ness at the Annual IMeeting. 

Invitations to all general receptions 
and exhibitions held at the Museum and 
the School. 

Free access to the Museum and School 
I^ibraries and admission to all lectures. 

.■\Iso a copy of each of the following 
publications: 

The Annual Report of the Corpora- 
tion, 

The Annual Circulars of the School 
of Applied Art and the Philadelphia 
Textile School. 

The Art Handbooks and Art Primers, 
issued from time to time by the Museum 
(a printed list of publications will be 
mailed to any member on application). 

The Illustrated Quartely Bulletin of 
the Museum. 

A list of members is published each 
year in the Annual Report. 

Applications for membership, and re- 
mittances should be sent to The Secre- 
tary. P. M. & S. I. A.. Memorial Hall. 
Fairmount Park. Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOURS OF ADMISSION 

The Museum is open, free to the pub- 
lic, every day in the year. 
Opening Hours: 

.Mondavs at u M, 
Other Week Days at 9:,^ A, M, 
Sundays at i P, M, 
Closing Hours: 

During the summer months. 5 P, AT. 
(Sundays. 6 P. M.) 
During Ihe winter umnihs. a half 
hour before sunset. 



CATALOGUES, HANDBOOKS, ETC. 
(On sale at the South Entrance) 

Handbook of the Museum $ .25 

A Brief History of the Bayeux Tap- 
estry TO 

Cork Models of Windsor Castle. 
Tower of London. Westminster 
Abbey, Church of St. Peter, Rome ,10 

The Great Seals of England 25 

Handbook of the Collection of Tulip 
Ware of the Pennsylvania-German 
Potters: 

Paper cover i.oo 

Large paper edition, Cloth .... 5.00 

Handbook of the Maiolica of Mexico : 

Paper cover i.oo 

Flexible Art Canvas 2.00 

Art Primer No, 3. Lead Glazed Pot- 
tery 50 

Art Primer No. 5. Tin Enameled 
Pottery , . . , 50 

."Vrt Primer No, 6. Salt Glazed Stone- 
ware 50 

.Art Primer No. 9. Hard Paste Porce- 
lain 50 

Art Primer No, 11, Artificial Soft 
Paste Porcelain 50 

Bulletin of the Pennsylvania !Mu- 
seum (quarterly), per annimi I.OO 



Friends of the Institution who desire 
to devise to it mone)' should use the fol- 
lowing: 

Form of Bequest 

I give and bequeath unto the Penn- 
sylvania Museum and School of Indus- 
trial Art the sum of 

dollars for the use of the said Corpora- 
tion. 

Witnesses 



Form of Devise of Real Estate 

I give and devise unto the Pennsyl- 
vania JMuseum and School of Industrial 
.\rt. its successors and assigns, all that 
certain (here insert a description of the 
property) for the use of the said Cor- 
poration. 



Witnesses 



PENNSYLVAN I A MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



MUSeUM COMMITTEE 



John Story Jenks, Chairman 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
John T. Morris 
John W. Pepper 
Edgar V. Seeler 



Edward T. Stotesbury 

Mrs. W. T. Carter 

Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Miss Fannie S. Macee 

Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 

Mrs. John Harrison, Ex Officio 

Miss Anna Blanchard, Honorary 



Edwin AtLek Barber, Director of the Museum 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Assistant Curator and Lecturer 

HONORARY CURATORS 

Textiles, Lace and Embroidery Mrs. John Harrison 

Oriental Pottery Mrs. Jones Wister 

European Porcelain Rev. Alfred Duane Pell 

\Tm& and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Ketteser 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Prints, Book Plates and Historic Seals Ch arles E. Dana 

Numismatics F. D. Langenheim 

Sculpture, MarbleJs and Casts .Alexander Stirling Caldei 



INSTRUCTION COMMITTEE 



Theodore C. Search, Chairman 
Charles Bond 
Charles E. Dana 
Charles H. Harding 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John Story Jenks 
John D. McIlhenny 
Edgar V. Seeler 
G. Henry Stetson 



Mrs. JpHN Harrison, Ex OKcin 



Jones Wister 
William Wood 
Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. Thomas Roberts 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 
Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



ASSOCIATE COMMITTEE OF WOMEN TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



pncsiocN-r 
Mrs. John Harrison 



VICe-PRCSIDCNT 

Mrs. Thomas Roberts 



sccncTanv 

Mrs. C. Shtllard Smith 



TRCASuNCn 

Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 



Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch 
Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburg 
Miss Louise W. Bodine 
Mrs. Jasper Ye.\tes Brinton 
Mrs. John H. Brinton 
Mrs. William T. Carter 
Miss Margaret Clyde 
Miss Margaret L. Corlies 
Miss Ada M. Crozer 
Mrs. David E. Dailam 



Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Countess Santa Eulalia 
Miss Cornelia L. Ewing 
Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 
Mrs. W. W. Gibbs 
Mrs. C. Leland Harrison 
Miss M. S. Hinchman 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus 
Miss Nina Lea 



Miss Fannie S. Magee 
Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs 
Mrs. James Mifflin 
Mrs. Francis F. Milne 
Mrs. John W. Pepper 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 
'Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Mrs. M. Hampton Todd 



Miss Anna Blanchard